Background and Aims: Mammoplasty, a common cosmetic procedure involving breast augmentation and reduction surgeries, has gained global popularity. Recently, attention has shifted towards understanding the prevalence and significance of gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms following mammoplasty. This systematic review aims to consolidate existing literature to provide a comprehensive overview of the type and frequency of GI problems associated with various mammoplasty procedures.

Methods: A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus databases was conducted until January 22, 2024, identifying observational and interventional studies examining GI symptoms post-mammoplasty. Inclusion criteria covered human studies, while exclusion criteria ensured specificity. Two independent investigators performed screening, and data extraction included study characteristics, surgical procedures, anesthesia methods, and interventions.

Results: Nineteen studies, involving 2,487 subjects, were included in the review. Breast reconstruction emerged as the most studied procedure, followed by breast reduction, augmentation, mastectomy, and breast cancer surgery. Predominant GI symptoms included nausea and vomiting, with varying rates across mammoplasty types. Anesthesia modality influenced symptomatology, with general, local, and combined anesthesia associated with GI disturbances. Antiemetics, notably ondansetron and droperidol, showed variable efficacy. Non-pharmacological approaches, such as preoperative hypnosis, were explored for symptom management.

Conclusions: Our systematic review reveals insights into GI symptoms post-mammoplasty, emphasizing the common occurrence of symptoms such as nausea and vomiting, alongside less frequent manifestations such as constipation, dry mouth, retching, abdominal pain, and tightness. Variations in symptom prevalence were noted across diverse mammoplasty surgeries, anesthesia methods, and the use of antiemetics, underscoring the complex nature of post-mammoplasty GI disturbances.


mammoplasty, nausea, abdominal pain, constipation, anesthesia techniques, antiemetic efficacy