Abstract

The role of gut microbiota in autoimmune disorders like multiple sclerosis is gaining attention. Multiple sclerosis is characterized by inflammation, demyelination, and neurodegeneration in the central nervous system. Alterations in gut microbiota have been linked to multiple sclerosis development, with decreased beneficial bacteria and increased harmful species. The gut-brain axis is a complex interface influencing bidirectional interactions between the gut and the brain. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in gut microbiota, has been associated with autoimmune diseases. The influence of gut microbiota in multiple sclerosis is reversible, making it a potential therapeutic target. Probiotics, prebiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation have shown promise in multiple sclerosis treatment, with positive effects on inflammation and immune regulation. Immunoglobulin Y (IgY) supplements derived from chicken egg yolk have potential as nutraceuticals or dietary supplements. IgY technology has been effective against various infections, and studies have highlighted its role in modulating gut microbiota and immune responses. Clinical trials using IgY supplements in multiple sclerosis are limited but have shown positive outcomes, including reduced symptoms, and altered immune responses. Future research directions involve understanding the mechanisms of IgY‘s interaction with gut microbiota, optimal dosage determination, and long-term safety assessments. Combining IgY therapy with other interventions and investigating correlations between microbiota changes and clinical outcomes are potential avenues for advancing multiple sclerosis treatment with IgY supplements.

Keywords

multiple sclerosis, gut microbiota, dysbiosis, probiotics, immunoglobulin Y