Background and Aims: Previous studies have reported gender differences in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). These studies have also reported differences based on gender in the rates of complications. In this study, we aim to identify gender disparities in the rates of GERD complications in the United States.

Methods: We queried the 2016-2020 National Inpatient Sample database to identify patients with GERD. Patients with eosinophilic esophagitis or missing demographics were excluded. We compared patient demographics, comorbidities and complications based on gender. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the impact of gender on complications of GERD.

Results: 27.2 million patients were included in the analysis. Out of them, 58.4% of the hospitalized patients with GERD were female. Majority of the women were White (75%), aged>65 years (57.5%) and were in the Medicare group (64%). After adjusting for confounders, females were noted to have lower odds of esophagitis (aOR=0.85, 95%CI: 0.84-0.86, p<0.001), esophageal stricture (aOR=0.95, 95%CI: 0.93-0.97, p<0.001), Barrett‘s esophagus (aOR=0.58, 95%CI: 0.57-0.59, p<0.001) and esophageal cancer (aOR=0.22, 95%CI: 0.21-0.23, p<0.001).

Conclusions: Our study confirms the findings of previous literature that females, despite comprising the majority of the study population, had a lower incidence of GERD related complications. Further studies identifying the underlying reason for these differences are required.


gender, GERD, National Inpatient Sample, complications, Barrett‘s esophagus, esophageal cancer, stricture