Abstract

Background and Aims: Walled-off necrosis (WON) is a serious complication of severe pancreatitis, patients with necrotizing pancreatitis having an increased risk of developing diabetes mellitus (DM). The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of new-onset diabetes (NOD) in patients with symptomatic WON after endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided drainage with lumen-apposing metal stents (LAMS).


Methods: We retrospectively analyzed a prospectively collected database of patients with symptomatic WON treated by EUS-guided drainage with LAMS in a tertiary referral center. The patients were followed-up for at least 12 months after stent removal. These patients were compared with age- and sex-matched asymptomatic WON controls without interventional treatment and healthy controls to assess the one-year occurrence of DM. Diabetes was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria.


Results: Of the 50 patients with symptomatic WON included in the study (male/female ratio, 33:17; median age, 60 years), 13 patients (26%) had pre-existing DM and were excluded. Ten of the remaining 37 patients (27%) without prior DM developed NOD within one year after stent removal, this frequency being higher than in asymptomatic WON controls (18.9%, p=0.581) and healthy controls (2%, p = 0.002). In the symptomatic WON group, NOD patients compared to non-DM patients were older (63.5 vs. 56 years old, p=0.042), had more frequent necrosis > 50% of the pancreatic parenchyma (p=0.002) and had a body-tail location of WON (p<0.001). On multivariate analysis, the number of direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) sessions was the only significant factor for NOD occurrence (OR=7.05, p=0.010). NOD patients had poor glycemic control and required more DEN sessions to achieve WON resolution than patients with prior DM (p=0.017).


Conclusions: In patients with symptomatic WON treated by EUS-guided drainage, DM occurred in 27% of previously non-diabetic patients within one year of follow-up. Patients with extensive pancreatic necrosis were more likely to develop NOD, a high number of DEN sessions being a significant risk factor for NOD occurrence.

Keywords

walled-off necrosis, endoscopic necrosectomy, diabetes mellitus, acute pancreatitis, lumen-apposing metal stent