Abstract

Background and Aims: Identifying the risk factors for extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) may optimize the therapeutic decision. We aimed to assess the prevalence of EIMs in IBD patients in Romania and to determine the risk factors.


Methods: We analyzed 2,626 patients registered in the Romanian IBD Prospect National Registry. We performed a descriptive cross-sectional study to assess the point prevalence of EIMs, calculating global prevalence and analyzing the different types of EIMs and their respective frequencies were carried out. Demographic and clinical risk factors were researched as possible predictors for EIMs development, based on the results of the univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.


Results: The overall point prevalence of EIMs was 16.3%. A significantly higher frequency of EIMs in Crohn’s disease (CD) was noted in comparison to ulcerative colitis (UC) and IBD unclassified (IBDU) (23.2% vs 11.3% and 16.3%, respectively, p<0.001). The most frequent type of EIM was peripheral arthropathy (8.3%), significantly associated with CD (p<0.001). Univariate analysis highlighted the significant independent common predictive risk factors for EIMs, in both CD and UC patients: female gender, patient’s urban area of origin, anemia, hypoalbuminemia, and high level of C-reactive protein (CRP), while significant independent IBD phenotype-related risk factors were ileocolonic location and concomitant involvement of upper gastrointestinal tract for CD, non-smoker status and both moderate and severe disease activity for UC (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis determined that female CD patients with moderate or severe disease activity, with other than isolated ileal disease, and female UC patients with moderate or severe extensive colitis are the most likely to develop EIMs.


Conclusions: IBD patients are experiencing EIMs in a large proportion, with higher rates for CD. As EIMs negatively affect patient outcomes, foreseeing the risk by identifying independent and associated predictive factors could be a first step to optimal work-up and treatment.

Keywords

inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis, extraintestinal manifestations, prevalence, risk factors