Abstract

Liver cirrhosis (LC) is an important cause of mortality. Access to liver transplantation (LT) has significantly improved the prognosis of LC. A rigorous pre-transplant cardiac evaluation is mandatory, since cardiac dysfunction is considered the main cause of mortality after LT. Notwithstanding, the most updated pre-LT evaluation guidelines provide only an algorithm for the evaluation of major cardiovascular diseases, with no specific recommendations concerning cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCM), which is linked to various complications in LC, especially the development of heart failure after invasive procedures and surgical interventions, including LT. CCM is characterized by a cardiac dysfunction that includes systolic and/or diastolic dysfunction and/or electrophysiological abnormalities, in the absence of other known cardiac diseases. The role of the novel methods, tissue Doppler imaging and speckle tracking echocardiography, might be essential in the early detection of cardiac dysfunction, with prognosis implications in LC. All these new methods were only recently included in the CCM diagnosis algorithm. This review summarizes the old and novel techniques used for the diagnosis of CCM, with their diagnosis and prognostic role. It also highlights the strengths and the weaknesses of the new provided CCM diagnostic consensus, and proposes a step-by- step novel diagnostic algorithm, in order to better detect cardiac dysfunction.cirrhotic cardiomyopathy

Keywords

cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, diastolic dysfunction, systolic dysfunction, cardiac biomarkers, speckle tracking echocardiography, tissue Doppler imaging