Low Prevalence of Celiac Disease among Patients with Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Latvia
Background and Aims: Studies suggest that the prevalence of celiac disease (CD) is increased in individuals with functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), in particular, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS); however, the evidence is conflicting. We aimed to analyze the prevalence of CD in patients with FGIDs in Latvia.
Methods: This retrospective study included patients with FGIDs, referred for a gastroenterologist consultation in a secondary gastroenterology practice unit. Patients were divided into three groups – patients only with IBS (IBS group), patients only with functional dyspepsia (FD) (FD group), patients with mixed symptoms IBS and FD (Mixed group). Patient levels of tissue transglutaminase IgA (tTG-IgA) and/or antiendomysial IgA group antibodies (EMA-IgA) were evaluated. Four duodenal biopsies were obtained and reported according to Marsh classification. Patients diagnosed or being referred for confirmation of CD were excluded from the study.
Results: Overall, 1,833 FGIDs patients were enrolled. Celiac serology was available for 1,570 patients, duodenal histology for 582 patients, both histology and serology for 319 patients. In total, celiac seropositivity was present in 1.78% (28/1570) (3.18% in IBS group, 0.90% in FD group and 1.11% of cases in the mixed group). Fifteen patients had histopathological changes (2.58%; 15/582). Three IBS patients (2.36%) were both serology and biopsy positive. None of the FD patients had CD.
Conclusion: Prevalence of biopsy-proven CD in patients from Latvia with FGIDs was low. Routine screening for CD could be considered only among patients with IBS.